Thursday, 10 January 2013

Alternative Printing Methods

This section is dedicated to alternative printing methods & artists/designers:

Information on printing with ink made from fruit

other plants resources:
-plant resin
-linseed oil
-pulped plants
-leftover tinted water from boiling vegetables


Shades Of Orange

- Alder Bark - (orange)
- Bloodroot will give a good orange to reddish orange color.
- Sassafras (leaves)
- Onion (skin) - orange
- Lichen (gold)
- Carrot - (roots) orange
- Lilac (twigs) - yellow/orange
- Barberry (mahonia sp.) yellow orange (with alum) very strong & permanent. Any part of the plant will work.
- Giant Coreopsis (Coreopsis gigantea) Yields bright permanent orange with alum.
- Turmeric dyed cloth will turn orange or red if it is dipped in lye.
- Pomagrante – with alum anywhere from orange to khaki green.
- Butternut - (seed husks) - orange
- Eucaluptus - (leaves and bark) beautiful shades of tan, orange and brown.

Shades Of Brown

- Wild plum root will give a reddish or rusty brown.
- Oak bark will give a tan or oak color.
- Sumac (leaves) - tan
- Dandelion (roots) brown
- Broom - (bark) - yellow/brown
- Walnut (hulls) - deep brown (wear gloves)
- Walnut (husks) - deep brown - black
- Tea Bags - light brown, tan
- White Birch - (inner bark) - brown
- Juniper Berries
- Fennel - (flowers, leaves) - yellow/brown
- Coffee Grinds
- Acorns (boiled)
- Hollyhock (petals)
- Colorado Fir - (bark) - tan
- Yellow dock (shades of brown)
- Beetroot -Dark Brown With FeSO4
- Maple Trees (Red Leaf Buds) - red-brown color when dried. Found on branches before new leaves appear only present during early spring and throughout fall.
- Amur Maple (Acer Ginnala) - black, blue, brown from dried leaves.
- Ivy - (twigs) - yellow/brown
- Pine Tree Bark - light medium brown. Needs no mordant.
- White Maple (bark) - Light brown/ buff - Alum to set
- Birch (bark) - Light brown/ buff - Alum to set
- St John's Wort (blossom) - brown
- Broom Sedge - golden yellow and brown
- Coneflower (flowers) - brownish green ; leaves and stems - gold
- Goldenrod (shoots ) - deep brown

Shades Of Pink

- Strawberries
- Cherries
- Raspberries (red)
- Roses and Lavender, with a little mint and some lemon juice to activate the alkaloids can make both a brilliant pink dye and a very tasty pink lemonade.
- Lichens - A pink, brown, or wine colored dye can be produced from a lichen known as British soldiers.
- Camilla -It's a nice pink-magenta. With lemon and salt.
- Grand Fir -(bark) pink

Shades of Blue/Purple

- Dogwood (bark) - blue
- Red cabbage
- Woad (first year leaves). Woad gives a pale to mid blue colour depending on the type of fabric and the amount of woad used.
- Mulberries (royal purple)
- Elderberries (lavender)
- Saffron - (petals) blue/green
- Grapes (purple)
- Blueberries
- Cornflower - (petals) blue dye with alum, water
- Cherry (roots)
- Blackberry (fruit) strong purple
- Hyacinth - (flowers) - blue
- Japanese indigo (deep blue)
- Indigo (leaves) - blue
- Red Cedar Root (purple)
- Raspberry -(fruit) purple/blue
- Red Maple Tree (purple)(inner bark)
- Nearly Black Iris - (dark bluish purple) alum mordant
- Dogwood - (fruit) greenish-blue
- Oregon Grape -(fruit) blue/purple
- Purple Iris - blue
- Sweetgum (bark) - purple / black
- Queen Anne's Lace –

Shades of Red

- Elderberry - red
- Red leaves will give a reddish brown color I use salt to set the dye.
- Sumac (fruit) - light red
- Sycamore (bark)- red
- Dandelion (root)
- Beets - deep red
- Bamboo - turkey red
- Crab Apple - (bark) - red/yellow
- Rose (hips)
- Chokecherries
- Madder (root) - red
- Hibiscus Flowers (dried)
- Kool-aid
- Canadian Hemlock - (bark) reddish brown
- Japanese Yew - (heartwood) - brown dye
- Wild ripe Blackberries
- Brazilwood
- St. John's Wort - (whole plant) soaked in alcohol - red
- Bedstraw (root) - red

Shades of Gray/Black

- Iris (roots)
- Sumac (leaves) (Black)
- Carob pod (boiled) will give a gray to cotton
- Oak galls - makes a good black dye.
- Sawthorn Oak - (seed cups) - black
- Walnut (hull) - black
- Rusty nails & vinegar - set with Alum.

Shades of Red-Purple

- Pokeweed (berries)
- Hibiscus (flowers, dark red or purple ones) - red-purple.
- Daylilies (old blooms)
- Safflower - (flowers, soaked in alcohol) - red
- Logwood (is a good purple but you have to watch it as it dyes quick when the pot is fresh. Also it exhausts fast. We use alum to mordant and using iron can give you logwood gray.)
- Huckleberry - lavender (can use it for dye and also for ink.)
- Portulaca - (flowers, dried and crushed to a powder) use with a vinegar orsalt mordant, can produce strong magentas, reds, scarlets, oranges and yellows (depending upon the color of the flower)
- Beluga Black Lentils - soaked in water overnight .. yield a dark purplish / black water. The color is washfast and lightfast and needs NO MORDANT and it lasts - a beautiful milk chocolate brown (when super thick) ... to a lighter medium brown or light brown when watered down.
- Dark Hollyhock (petals) - mauve
- Basil - purplish grey

Shades of Green

- Artemisia species provide a range of greens from baby's breath to nettle green.
- Artichokes
- Tea Tree - (flowers) green/black
- Spinach (leaves)
- Sorrel (roots) - dark green
- Foxglove - (flowers) apple green
- Lilac - (flowers) - green
- Camellia - (pink, red petals) - green
- Snapdragon - (flowers) - green
- Black-Eyed Susans
- Grass (yellow green)
- Pigsweed (entire plant) yellow green
- Red Pine (needles) green
- Nettle
- Broom - (stem) green
- Larkspur - green - alum
- Plantain Roots
- White Ash - (bark) - yellow
- Purple Milkweed - (flowers & leaves) - green
- Lily-of-the-valley (light green) be careful what you do with the spent dye bath. The plant is toxic so try to avoid pouring it down the drain into the water supply.
- Barberry root (wool was dyed a greenish bronze-gold)
- Red onion (skin) (a medium green, lighter than
forest green)
- Yarrow - (flowers) yellow & green shades
- Mulga Acacia - (seed pods) - green
- Peach - (leaves) yellow/green
- Coneflower (flowers) - green
- Peppermint - dark kakhi green color
- Queen Anne's Lace - pale green
- Black-Eyed Susans - bright olive/apple green
- Hydrangea (flowers) - alum mordant, added some copper and it came out a beautiful celery green
- Chamomile (leaves) – green
Shades of Yellow/Wheat

- Bay leaves - yellow
- Barberry (bark) - yellow
- Crocus - yellow
- Fustic - yellow
- Saffron (stigmas) - yellow - set with Alum.
- Safflower (flowers, soaked in water) - yellow
- Sassafras (bark)- yellow
- Syrian Rue (glows under black light)
- Red Clover (whole blossom, leaves and stem) alum mordant - gold
- Yellow cone flower (whole flower head); chrome mordant; Brass to Greeney-Brass.
- Onion (skins) - set with Alum.
- Alfalfa (seeds) - yellow
- Marigold (blossoms) - yellow
- Willow (leaves)
- Queen Anne's Lace
- Heather - (plant) - yellow
- St. John's Wort - (flowers & leaves) - gold/yellow
- Burdock
- Celery (leaves)
- Golden Rod (flowers)
- Sumac (bark) - The inner pith of Sumac branches can produce a super bright yellow color.
- Weld (bright yellow)
- Old man's beard lichen - yellow/brown/orange shades
- Oregon-grape roots - yellow
- Cameleon plant (golden)
- Mimosa - (flowers) yellow
- Dandelion flower
- Osage Orange also known as Bois d'arc or hedgeapple (heartwood, inner bark, wood, shavings or sawdust) (pale yellow)
- Daffodil flower heads (after they have died); alum mordant
- Mullen (leaf and root) pale yellow. *careful, because the little fuzzy hairs can make one itchy!
- Hickory leaves (yellow) if plenty of leaves are boiled and salt added.
- Tea ( ecru color)
- Yellow, Curly, Bitter, or Butter Dock (despite various leaf shapes, all have a bright yellow taproot) gives you a yellow/flesh color.
- White mulberry tree (bark) Cream color onto white or off-white wool. Alum mordant.
- Paprika -pale yellow - light orange)
- Peach (leaves) - yellow
- Beetroot (yellow) (alum & K2Cr2O7)
- Turmeric (spice) --bright yellow
- Oxallis (wood sorrels) (flowers) - the one with the yellow flowers. Use the flower heads, some stem ok. It is nearly fluorescent yellow, and quite colorfast on alum mordanted wool.
If the oxalis flowers are fermented or if a small dash of cloudy ammonia is added to the dyebath (made alkaline) the fluorescent yellow becomes fluorescent orange. Usually I do this as an after-bath, once I have the initial colour. Useful for shifting the dye shade, and some good surprises in store!
- Dahlia Flowers (Red, yellow, orange flowers) make a lovely yellow to orange dye for wool.
- Mulga Acacia -(flowers) - yellow
- Sunflowers - (flowers) - yellow
- Dyer's Greenwood (shoots) - yellow
- Tansy (tops) - yellow
- Yarrow - yellow and gold


The basic elements in natural paints:
- Binder- the main ingredient of the paint. Natural options include: lime, clay, chalk, casein (non-fat milk curds), oil and flour paste.
- Pigment- the color. Natural options include: clay, nuts, berries, herbs, charcoal, bark and soot.
- Filler/stabilizer (*optional)- for texture. Natural options include: chalk, clay and talcum.

Starch Paste:

Add 1 part white flour to 2 parts cold water & set aside.
Add above mix to 1 1/2 parts boiling water.
Cook mixture on low heat until thickened.
Paint mix:

Dilute 1 part starch paste with 2 parts water.
Add clay (bought as a clay powder or it can be found naturally near a riverbed-- though needs to be cleaned and strained before use). Mix enough clay into the paste so that it becomes like a thick cream.
Add pigment (optional: if you like the color of the paint this is not necessary). You can find natural pigments, in powder form, at art supply stores. 
Use a brush to apply to wall. When paint is nearly dry (but still moist), it can be polished with a damp tile sponge.

Receipe 2:

1 cup of cornstarch
1/2 cup of water
1/3 cup of soap flakes melted with a half cup of boiling water
Natural homemade dyes

Grate a homemade soap bar until you get a third cup of soap flakes.
Combine cornstarch, water, and melted soap in a bowl.
Stir well and let mixture set until thickened.
Divide into separate bowls and add in natural dyes for color.
Your paints are now ready for a canvas!

Recipe for milk paint

8 parts skim milk
1 part hydrated lime (AKA builders lime). Avoid quick lime.
2 parts linseed oil ( boiled type )
1/4 part salt
Mix ingredients. Strain with cheesecloth or fine mesh. Can be kept in refrigerator for a few days.

Receipe 2:

The easiest to make and least expensive homemade paints consist of milk, lime, and pigment. For additional body a filler, such as chalk powder or plaster can be added. My preferred recipe is simplicity itself:

Hydrated lime (available at most home and garden supply stores)
- Water
- Pigment (powder or liquid)
- Whole milk (at room temperature)

1. Fill a container with one to two cups of hydrated lime. Gradually add water and stir until you have a thick paste. 

2. In a separate container, do the same with the pigment powder. For a small batch like this, 2 to 4 tablespoons of pigment is typically sufficient. 

3. Gradually add milk to the lime paste until you achieve the consistency of sour cream. Then add the pigment paste and mix thoroughly. 

Safety tip: Despite the relative low toxicity of the ingredients, wear vinyl gloves and a dust mask when working with lime and pigment.

You can 
buy pigmentsat many hardware and artist supply stores. Avoid using pigments made from toxic compounds, otherwise you'll defeat the purpose of making your own paint. Some common toxins used in pigments include cadmium, lead, mercury, and cobalt.

You can make many of your own colorants using natural ingredients but the process is a lot more time-consuming than making paint alone. Also, the colors produced through home-brewed dyes are more subtle than store-bought pigments. If you do want to make homemade pigment, try these methods:

- Add water to steel wool for a red rust coloring. 
- Try simmering everything from berries and vegetables to bark and leaves to create the dyes. Blackberries, for example, make a strong dye. 
- Brew coffee or many tea to create neutral tones. 
- Boil peach or crab apple leaves for greens. 
- Use store-bought juice concentrates, such as blueberry and cranberry, to create pleasing tints. 

- Milk paint is not as scrubbable as its commercial cousins. In areas subject to spills, apply a protective coat of shellac or oil finish. If you choose the latter, stay green with a plant oil-based finish. 

- The shelf life for milk paint is short. Store unused paint in the refrigerator. It can be used until the milk sours. Brushes clean easily with soap and water.

Alternative to pigments and water based inks we could create our own materials.
These women in Vermont have created pond & garden dyes 

Natural dye tests by Alice Fox

One of the best and long established sites for chemical free and green alternatives to printmaking.

Maria Florez selection of artists who have catched her eye:
-Diana MacKenzie
-Doris Madsen
-Erika Radich
-Joan Dix Blair
-Louise Kohrman
-Margaret Merritt
-Victoria Burge 

Rachel Ramirez, Direct gyotaku, natural sepia, walnut, pomegranate, and onion skin natural dyes on Somerset paper (each print) 76 x 56cm

PB Copy, a Vancover based print company uses pedal power to generate their machine.

Portable mini press (by Bill Richie)

Non Toxic Printing

Making Art Safely

Akua Inks
Akua inks are professional quality, water-based inks created by two printmakers, Susan Rostow and William Jung.   

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